Un brand pierdut

Wallachian Sheep (Walachenschaf, Zachelschaff Moravian Zackelschaf, Voloshian, Valakhskaya, Voloshskaya, Valachian, Valahian, Valakhian, Volosh, Walachian, Wallachian achel, Woloschian, etc.) este o rasă de oi aflată în pericol de extincţie. Se estima un efectiv total, în octombrie 1998, de cca. 200 indivizi nemetisaţi.
Se presupune că rasa provine din oile duse de ciobanii valahi, în migraţia lor din secolele 13 – 16, către centrul Europei şi rămase izolate în văile munţilor din Moravia.
Cele mai multe exemplare sunt crescute, astăzi, în scop de conservare a rasei, în Germania şi în Cehia. (Mason, I.L. – A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties, Fourth Edition. C.A.B International, 1996). Oile crescute astăzi în scopul conservării rasei arată diferit, în ceea ce priveşte conformaţia coarnelor, de tipul reprezentat în imaginile din secolele trecute. Dacă berbecii tipului vechi aveau coarnele spiralate, cu axa în formă de V, la berbecii de astăzi această axă este  orizontală (vezi aici fişa de prezentare a Grădinii zoologice din Worms, Germania).
Diverşi metişi sunt crescuţi în Ungaria şi în România.
Această rasă de oi a fost introdusă în Rusia la sfârşitul secolului XIX şi începutul secolului XX. A fost utilizată mai ales pentru metisare. Hibrizii rezultaţi au fost crescuţi mai ales în ţinuturile Volgograd, Kaliningrad şi Rostov. (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition, 1970-1979, © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc.)

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3 răspunsuri la Un brand pierdut

  1. viesparul spune:

    Dar ce frumoasa e! Nici nu stiam ca exista rasa aceasta…

  2. C. Draganescu spune:

    NOU Rasa de care vorbiti si o ilustrati foarte bine a fost numita de Buffon (1780), Dariwin si numerosi savanti Valaha, de sarbi Valaska vitoroga, de unguri Racska (neobservand ca aceasta insemneaza sarba, si considerand-o „document istoric”, adusa de ei). Este de fapt un Rasa este un document istoric al…valahilor, inrudita cu vechile oi eiptene, pe care am numit-o Valaha cu coarne in tirbuson, pentru a n fi confundata cu oile…Valahe-descendente din oile Daco-Geto-Tracilor si care au existat intr-o zona vasata, inclusiv in 17 ubernii ale fostului imperiu rusesc.. Am discutat stiintific problema in ultimii 20 de anii si am publicat in 2005 o sinteza, pe care am retusat-o putin acum si v-o pot trimite (7 pag. l.engleza). D-e-mailul de mai jos

    Valachian Corkscrew Horns Sheep Breed. (“Ratsca”)*
    An historical document?
    C.Drăgănescu

    Summary: Corkscrew horns Valachian sheep it is a breed from the Early Egyptian (Ovis paleoegiptica) phileic group, located in Serbia, Montenegro, Panonia, and Romanian border with Serbia. The tribe was named by Buffon (1780), Darwin (1865) Valachian, by Serbs Corkscrew Horns Valachian (Valaska vitorogta), by Hungarian Racka (=Serbian), by Linnaeus O.a.strpsiceros. The translation of strepsiceros into German=Zackel (Nathusius 1890), produced a confusion with the Valachian philetic group descending from the Thrakian philetic group. To avoid confusion, we proposed (1994) to use for this philetic group the Serbian name Valachian Corkscrew Horns. It is a sedentary sheep, not adapted to transhumance and to big flocks, not adapted to support wintering in open field, even to stay in the rain. Have a smaller weight of fine fibbers in the mixed wool, it seem black colour recessive, inverse than in Valachia (Tsurcana) breeds. It is economically not competitive with others local and improved breed and it is in danger of extinction in Serbia and even Romania and well conserved in Hungary. It was considered as an historical document (Dunka 1984) and perhaps it is. Document the former existence of a Valachian tribe in this area, implicit the Valachian contribution to the ethno genesis of nations from this area. As an interesting genetic resource, but also for the aesthetic aspect of his horns and for some cultural reasons it deserve to have a good genetic conservervation programm

    (I) Introduction. The Valachian Corkscrew Horns sheep breeds, was firs presented by Buffon (1780), after a description of Colinson, under the name Valchian (“Brebis valachienne”). Colinson noticed it in the former Yugoslavian space, being perhaps the sheep of some Valachs (Romanians). Interesting by their spectacular horns, similar to the former antiques Egyptian sheep, the breed was presented, photo illustrated (https://nelucraciun.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/un-brand-pierdut/) and named Valachian by many 19-th centuries scientists, including Ch. Darwin (1865). Linnaeus named this breed Ovis aries strepsiceros.
    The Serbs ( ) denominate this breed Valalachian Corkscrew Horns (“Valaska vitoroga”)..To avoid a confusion to others breeds named also Valachian, we recommended (1994), (in spite of Taxonomically reglementation who do not allow the change of name), the utilisation of Serb name. The Hungarians name the breed “Racka”, not noticing that that mean “Serbian”.(Raks=Serb).. The Romanian scientists accepted the Hungarian name “Ratska”), some scientist (Maior-1899), understanding that that mean “Serbian”. . Cornevin (1890) presented the Corkscrew breed as “from Montenegro”. Nathusius (1880) translate the Linnaeus strepsiceros into German and denominated the breed Zackel, and this name was extendet to al Valachian sheep breeds even they were not related to Corkscrew Horns Vlachian.
    From this introductory notes it is obviously that in Corkscrew horns Valachian breed denomination, even in his classification, identification as in the whole farm animals taxonomy, persist many errors with economical and historic-cultural negative effect; it is a whole comedy of errors (Draganescu 1998),. By studying the breeds from this part of Europe, and the Zoological Taxonomy we proposed some improvement in the Farm Animal Taxonomy especially accepting some reglementations of Zoological Taxonomy…
    We note that naturalists, such Buffon and Linnaeus, established valid systems of identification, classification and nomenclature for the extraordinary diversity of plant and animal species, a common language for all biologists. Linnaeus tried to put order also in the kingdom of domestic animals. He utilized for the sheep breeds a binary denomination (O. aries: rustica, hispanica, anglica, policerata, africana, laticauda guinesis, strepsiceros ) The great diversity of domestic animals, the lack of clear and satisfactory criteria for classification, did not give Linnaeus and the 19th century scientists the possibility to solve the problem. Mason (1951, 1969,1988, 1999) noticed the possibility of “the confusions which can arise by some breed having entirely different name in different parts of the world”. He considered the necessity of classification, but because “comparable information about all breeds was hard to obtain” his “work has remained at the stage of dictionary”.The breed inventory made by EAAP and FAO tried to clarify some problems but many taxonomic confusions persists.
    The objective of this paper was at firs to illustrate and to correct some taxonomical deficiencies connected with this breed (nomenclature, description classification). During the researches appeared also some interesting cultural aspects. Our researches consider the breed from all four European locations but consider valuable and good the description made by Bodo for the Corkscrew horns breed from Hungary, and adds just some modest observations made on this breed in Romania.
    Material and metod. My researches started in years 1994 when I read the Dunka Bela brochure, the Nathusius book and I visited the Hungarian Racka Sheep Hortobagyi Nemzeti Park reservation. I continued the documentation, I visited and studied the Corkscrew horn peasants micro-farms in Romania (Banatat -some 5 villages in Dogneci Mountainous area, near the Roman-Serb border), and I tried to see the breed in Serbia. At the Romanian Caransebes experimental station was established a small nucleus of this breed and there were presented the observations in some papers, most of them not published.
    Results and discussions
    (I) Origine and classification
    (1) For the origin of Valachian Corkscrew Horns sheep there are two suppositions.
    (a). The first supposition, resulted from the first name, given by Buffon and maintained practically by all scientists of 18-th, 19-th even 20-th century, starting with Colinson-Buffon, Darwin. This name point out that this sheep has been the sheep of some Valachian, tribe.**, there is Romanian, Valachs being the nickname given to Romanians after the change of the power and the language in Constantinople from Latin to Greek (641 year). The name given by the Serbs (Valaska vitoroga), by the Hungarians, Germans Romanians from Romania (Racka, Serbian) and by Cornevin (1890) point out that the breed owners, Valachians, have been from the Serbo- Montenegro, Panonian space . Most probables the breed was bring there before the migration period, during the Romans time, from Middle East. The Thrako-Geto-Dacs, the main ancestors of the Valachians had not such sheep.
    The supposition is attested by Ryder and Stephenson (1968), quoted also by Vicovan (2006), who investigated the old origin of Corkscrew horns Valachian sheep and found that there were two old sheep with such horns: (1). Some 5000 years ago use to live in Mesopotamia (present Iran) sheep of which just the rams use to have corkscrew horns; (2). On the some time in Egypt use to live sheep of which both sexes use to have corkscrew horns. Ryder noted that the Corkscrew Horns Valachian sheep remember the Egyptian sheep, though there are some differences between them. The Egyptian sheep had loped ears, short wool long feet.
    (b). The second supposition is done and accepted by some Hungarians, scientists. In the formulation of Dunka(1984) the breed “found its way into Carpathian basin in the course of the great migrations, arriving either with the conquering Hungarians or other people and tribes”. As a evidence for his supposition he speck about a similar Moldavian or Russian Racka, but such sheep not exist there. Bela Dunka (1984) indicates also that “the breed is primarily indigenous to the Hungarian Plain.” He may by rightly, because Cavalli-Sforza (2001) suggests an old “local Romance-speaking population in this area” before the conquest and language imposition of Magyar monarchy.” And is possible, but low probable, that the Romance speaking population had the Corkscrew Horns sheep,
    Kukovics (2005) sustain the Dunka opinions affirming that the Whit Racka have an „Asian origin, and arrived to Europe according to most of opinions with the Hungarian people in the 9th century ” ( p.210). For the Black Racka he accepted however that just “to several opinions arrived to Europe with the Hungarian people in the 9th century”(p 208). Perhaps the last affirmation is through. The thesis is used for some territorial re vindication. Not considering the scientific through underlined by Sforza-2001, that Hungarians are genetically just some 10 percent Magyars, who imposed their language to the former inhabitants of Panonian Roman province, suppose that the Valach who come in Transilvania just in 13th century, replaced the Magyar Racka with their Tsurcana and Tsigai bring from Balkan. The last oppinion of Kukovics is attested by the fact that on an Utrech exposition (1996 year) the breed was denominated by Hungarians who exposed it “Racka ou Valache”(foto), and noticed that is of Romanian origin. We note a supplementary complication. Of this problem. Baltay (1994) state that up to 17-th century the breed has been the most important breed in Hungary, but Bokony, state that archaeologically it appear just in 17-th century. As a curiosity we note also that in 2000 edition of FAO WWL III the Valachian Corkscrew Horn (Serbian) is denominated “Zackel vitoroga”.
    Perhaps it will be taxonomical useful if in Romania and Hungary will be adapted the Valachian Corkscrew Horns denomination and clarified the denomination in Montenegro-Kosovo and NE Africa.
    (2) Classification. Deduced from the presented considerations, the suggested phylogenetic classifications of the breeds from this phyletic group are the following.

    Suggested cladogram of Corkscrew horn Valachian sheep ( Drăgănescu1998, Reader 1968)
    (3) Classification error. Erroneously the breed was and still is included in the Zackel phyletic group, even the name Zackel is not used in any country for any breed. The explication of this situation is the following.. Nathusius (1880) made a history of identification and breed denomination. He translated the breed Linnaeus name-O. a. strepticeros -into German, and named it Zackel referred to his straight horns (strepsiceros=”prong”-eng.=”zackel”-germ. as Mason deduced) . The Nathusius (1880) innovation favored an error: the denomination of all breeds named and now Valachian (Valakhskaia, Valassky, Zoslachtena Valaska, Walachenschaf, Vlahikos, etc.) Zakel. Is possible that the error is favored by the fact that Zackel use to mean for Germans from Romania,“mountain peasants”, and the mountain peasants use to be Valachian. As a result all the Valachian’s breeds was named by German scientists Zackel, even they are originated from the Thracko-Geto-Dacic sheep, introduced some 1000 years B.H. from Mesopotamia, not related with the corkscrew horns sheep. This error can be justificated by the fact that both group have greasy wool, confoundable even really is different. Scientifically the confusion can produce elementary errors. Typical Valachian breed (“Tsurcana de Ghimes”) is denominated “Gymes Racka”, even it have nothing in common with corkscrew sheep who, is not adapted to live in such area (Gymes).
    II. Location and nombet of breed in Romania
    We noted in 1997 year the location of the breed in Romanian Caras-Severin (Banat) department, Dognecea mountainous area (“Carasana area”), some 20-50 km of the Romano-Serbian border, in some 4 vilages (Binis, Comorâşte, Forotic,Doclin). There were 209 females and 18 males with clear known pure breed origin at 22 subsistence farms. Were indicated also 671 females and 28 rams with not clear origin in 35 others farms.
    Statistical it is noted in Romania of 1999th year a number of 2058 such sheep in all area. Vicovan (2006) estimated an effective size (Ne) of 160,1 animals, thre is a situation of critical endangered breed. From this area the breed sample has been exported in 1960’ years in Hungary..
    In Hungary, the breed is well conserved selected and presented (Bodo 1996).
    In production the stock was in 2002-2003 years of some 1300 black sheep 10000 white. Registered stock was in 2005 of 2400 white Racka in 30 farms and 1450 black Racka in 35 farms. Production system was traditional extensive (Kukovics)
    Characteristic feature of production: prolificacy 1,1-1,2; weight gain 220-240 ewe. 250-300 g/day ram; body weight 1 year old 30-34 kg ewes,42-46 kg rams; BW developed 40-44 kg ewes, 50-55 rams (in ecofarming production system traditional extensive).Greasy wool weight 2,0-3,o 24-32micron 50-60 14-27 cm
    It seem that in Serbia the breed disappeared or is critical endangered (some 6 sheep in 1999 ?)
    III. Some morph o-physiological particularity of Valachian Corkscrew horns
    As now the breed is erroneously included frequently in Valachian sheep philetic group (“ Zakel “) is important to study the similarities and differences with it.
    At a superficial observation, it seems that the only, or the major, difference between Corkscrew horns Walachian and the classical Walachian (“Tsurcana”,) erroneously named Zackel) sheep are the horns.
    Really the differences are much more complicated. Corkscrew sheep is a sedentary sheep (not adapted to transhumance, and to big flocks, asking for shelters (not able to support wintering in open field, even the rain). One of explanation of this differences between this philes is the smaller weight of fine fibres in the Corkscrew horns sheep, and by consequences, less resistance to cold and even rains (table 1)
    The breed is used for milk, lamb meet and wool, production. There are not to many research on his production traits A comparative study to Tsurcana (Saurer 1999) shall that the live weight of Romanian Corkscrew horn sheep is of 5o.15 kg (Caransebes Tsurcana 46.43 kg-difference not significant), wool production 1.44 kg (Tsurcana 2.45 kg), washed wool proportion 75% (Tsurcana 68.2%), milk fat 6.4% (Tsurcana 7.2%), Milk protein 6.15% (Tsurcana 5.75%), wool length 28.2 cm (Tsurcana 26.4 cm), finesse 38.11 microns (Tsurcana 4o.5 microns). This data are confirmed by some earlier research (table 2, Stefănescu 1956)

    Table 1
    Percent of different wool fiber in Corksrew horns andTsurcana
    ( Stefănescu şi col 1958)
    Breed
    Fiber type

    Fine (18-30 microns)
    Medium (30-45 microns)
    Coarse (45- microns)
    Corkscrew horns
    34,95
    40,68
    24,37
    Tsurcana
    55,0.2
    24,36
    16,62

    Table 2
    Wool and milk production of Corkscrew horns Valachian andTsurcana
    ( Stefănescu şi col 1958)
    Breed
    Wool (kg)
    Milk production (kg)
    Lactation (days)

    No.ind.
    Average (kg)
    Limits (kg)
    No.ind.
    Average
    Limits
    %fat
    Average
    limits
    Corkscrew
    Horns
    20
    1,8
    1,5-3,9
    22
    134,13
    23,84-269,29
    7,05
    (5,9-8,2)

    161,12
    138-177

    Tsurcana
    216
    2,06
    1,2-4



    In Romania there are not enough scientific research on morphological aspects of the breed. It is not yet clear, but it seems that in Corkscrew Valachian the black color is recessive, inverse as on Tsurcana (Valachian, Zackel). It seem that his conformation and development is not too different of Hungarian Corkscrew sheep’ large presented in literature (Bodo 1996), though the last is bettered selected and more uniform in development and conformation. There are also differences in horn position (just uniform straight V twisted horns in Hungarian, the Romania have also lateral straight horns) and the Hungarian more uniform in color (white wool, reddish face and legs, or black wool, face and legs). More detailed connected to the morphs-productive characters of the breeds are presented in the questionnaires for the European Regional Focal Point for Animal Genetic Resources (Draganescu. Kukovics 2005)V.

    IV. Production system, genetic management
    Most sheep from the Romanian breeding area belong to subsistence farms, each heving some 1-20 ewes The sheep are pastured around the
    village, the owners being associated and organizing flocks of some 100 sheep; morning and evening each owner milk his sheep at home.
    Generally each owners tend to keep rams and the breeds have in Romania a classic community breeding system in, which the flocks conveniently to each other exchange breeding stock. There are however and some elite flocks, where the breeder produce there rams, practicing by that some inbreeding.
    Conservation. After the forced introduction of Tsurcana in the cooperative farms (1950-1970), from the Corkscrew horns Valachian area, the owners noticed that the Tsurcana-the Romanian Valachian, has some advantages; as a result though the breed is still in production for milk, lamb meet and wool she is in a critical danger of extinction, as in Serbia. By tradition some peasants still conserve it on a short period, but this is not a solution. Besides the necessary scientific approach in breed diagnosis and in the establishment of their genetic and cultural importance, a program of official conservation must be introduced. The Hungarian example and practice can be very useful.

    References
    Baconyi S 1974 History of Domestic Mamals in Central and Eastern
    Europe.Akad.Kiado Budapest
    Belic 1980
    Bodo I. 1944 The Hungarian Racka AGRI 13: 83-91

    Darwin Ch. 1865 The Variation of Animal and Plants under Domestication,

    Drăgănescu .C 1994 An attempt to a filetic classification of Valachian and Tsigai breeds.Stocarstvo 48:9-19:395-401

    Drăgănescu .C 1995 Origine and relationschip between Valachian and Tsigai breeds from the Danubian

    area.Stocarstvo49:9-10:321-327
    are.Int.Simp, Naples.EAAP Public.85:101-106
    Drăgănescu C. 1997 Note on the Corkscrew Horns Sheep Name Dagene Symp
    2 Draganescu C. 1998 The Buffon Valachian sheep. Book of abstracts EAAP 49 meeting .S2.33
    Drăgănescu C, 1997 Rasele de oi din centrul şi sud-estul europei-puncte de reper în istoria românilor.Acad.Rom. Studii de istorie economicăIII.Ed Acad,
    Drăgănescu C. 2001. An attempt to a phyletic Classificatio of Balkan Nativ Breeds. Tekirdag- Turkiye
    Drăgănescu C. 2005 Corkscrew Horns Valchian breed in: Poossible way of conservation…RFP EURPE (Questionaire)
    Draganescu C * 2003 Romanian Strategy for the management of AnGR Bucharest 97 pag
    Dunka Bela 1984 A Maghiar Racka (The Hungarian Racka) Hortobaghy Nemzet Park Debretin
    Kukovics S.2005 Hortobagyi Racka -Blak variant ( pp.208-209); White variant (pp.210-211) in: Poossible way of conservation…RFP EURPE (Questionaire)
    Mason I.L. 1988. World Dictioary of Livestock Beeds CAB Int.

    1 Nathusius H.v. 189o. Vortrage uber Schafzuct p 396-398,201.Berlin Wiegendt

    Rider M.L.,Stephenson S.K. 1968 Wool Growth. Acad Press London. New York
    Sauer I. Et al. 1999 Studiul parametrilor morfo-productivi la rasa Ratca.
    Ştefănescu C., Angelescu L.,Taftă V., Trifu G. 1958 Rezultate Experimentale asupra metişilor G2 Merinosx Ţurcană (Varietatea Albă şi Raţca). An.ICZ XV:298-319
    Teodoreanu N., Derlogea V., Stefănescu C. 1952 Cercetări asupra însuşirilor lânii la metişii G1 MerinosxŢurcană,varietatea Raţca.Com.Acad.II,7-8
    Vicovan G., Vicovan A., Radu R. 2006 Rasa Valaha cu coarne in tirbuson p.99-104 in:Evaluarea Statusului de risc…Ed. Europolis Constanta
    FAO WWL III ed.2000

    Foto 2. A ram, the Shepard and the researchers in Romanian Dogneciu are

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